Biological research in Antarctica has made considerable progress in science over recent decades. As little as 50 years ago, there was scant knowledge even of the species inhabiting the region. Since then, understanding has developed rapidly, across diverse disciplines including physiology, biochemistry, ecology and biogeography. Some dramatic global-scale discoveries and advances have been made, including the characterisation of antifreeze proteins from notothenioid fish and the finding that some fish lack a heat shock response, the identification of microbial communities living within the surface layers of rocks and description of the simplest faunal communities known, the identification that possibly the fastest environmental and ecological change on earth is occurring in Antarctic lakes, and that the biodiversity of the Southern Ocean is much greater than previously thought. Findings such as these have made biology in cold extreme environments one of the most stimulating areas for research in recent decades. Now, the advent and widespread applicability of the novel genomic technologies promise to move us into a period of equally, or possibly even more, rapid advance. At present, genomic information on Antarctic species is limited mainly to a number of fish species and microbes. However, an increasing number of Antarctic genomics projects are being funded and will significantly increase the amount of molecular information available on a much wider range of species in the near future. Hence it is timely to review progress so far in the use of genomic methods in Antarctic research and identify exciting prospects for dramatic future advances.
Wintershall Dea has signed concession agreement for East Damanhour block. (Credit: Pixabay/Terry McGraw) Germany’s Wintershall Dea has signed a concession agreement with Egypt’s Petroleum Ministry for exploration of oil and gas in the East Damanhour block in Egypt.The block is located to the west of Wintershall Dea’s Disouq development in the onshore Nile Delta.The East Damanhour exploration block spans 1,418km². The German oil and gas company is the operator of the Disouq leases with a 100% stake.Wintershall Dea CEO Mario Mehren said: “Wintershall Dea has a 45-year history in Egypt. Alongside recent investments in our operated projects at Disouq and in the Gulf of Suez, our exploration plans are a further sign of our commitment to the country.”Wintershall Dea Egypt managing director Sameh Sabry said: “Over the years we have developed extensive knowledge and experience in this area.“This, and the block’s proximity to our existing Disouq infrastructure, means that we are well placed for a quick and cost optimized development of any discovered volumes.”Three-year exploration phase at East Damanhour block to commence in 2020Wintershall is scheduled to commence the three-year exploration phase at the East Damanhour block in 2020, with plans to drill several exploration wells.Wintershall Dea CEO Mario Mehren said that the company sees great potential in the Eastern Mediterranean region when it comes to undiscovered gas resources.Mehren added: “It’s an interesting region and Egypt is well-positioned to serve as an Energy Hub due to its established export facilities, which offer convenient export routes.”Through its predecessor Dea, Wintershall Dea started operations in Egypt in 1974. The company produces gas at Disouq in the onshore Nile Delta, gas and oil in the Gulf of Suez, and gas and condensate from the offshore West Nile Delta project, operated by BP.In October 2019, Wintershall Dea agreed to offload its stakes in two of its Norwegian midstream infrastructure assets – the Nyhamna terminal and the Polarled pipeline in order to focus on upstream activities in the country.The company is planning to boost its average daily production to about 750,000 barrels of oil equivalent per day (boe/d) by 2023 from about 590,000 boe/d in 2018. The East Damanhour block is located to the west of Wintershall Dea’s Disouq development in the onshore Nile Delta
“I am encouraged by the 6th Circuit’s decision to halt this federal overreach. There are significant issues with this rule that must be carefully addressed. The court’s Order of Stay ensures that Indiana will not be irreparably harmed by a rule that I believe will ultimately fail on its merits. Background: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers issued the Waters of United States regulation in an attempt to clarify and redefine the limits of federal jurisdiction over waterways under the Clean Water Act. In its Order, the 6th Circuit noted that, “the sheer breadth of the ripple effects caused by the Rule’s definitional changes counsels strongly in favor of maintaining the status quo for the time being.” In November of 2014, Governor Pence and Lt. Governor Sue Ellspermann sent letters to the EPA and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers urging them to withdraw the proposed rule that redefines “Waters of the United States” protected under the Clean Water Act. The letter in full can be found attached.Governor Pence Letter to EPA 11.14.14 In response, Governor Mike Pence issued the following statement: “The solutions to the challenges we face will most effectively emanate from our state capitals, not federal bureaucrats in Washington, D.C. In Indiana, we are growing our economy, creating jobs, and feeding the world by eliminating bureaucratic red tape and reducing the size of government. I believe that Hoosiers know best how to protect our waters, and this rule inhibits Indiana’s ability to manage its own affairs.” The 6th Circuit Court of Appeals issued an Order of Stay preventing the implementation of the Waters of the United States regulation pending final judicial review. FacebookTwitterCopy LinkEmail
British Bakeries began delivering baked goods from speciality supplier La Fornaia to the Co-op group this week in a move that the retailer said would open the door to other regional suppliers.The plant baker, which supplies the Co-op’s standard bread range, has agreed to collect from La Fornaia, based in North London, on a daily basis.At the end of April, it will also collect from The French Croissant Company, based in the same industrial park as La Fornaia.The deal has been driven by the Co-op and comes as the 3,000-shop retailer overhauls its bakery department, adding a premium packaged range, supplied by La Fornaia.Co-op category development manager for produce and bakery Jill McCann told British Baker that the Co-op had previously avoided using regional bakery suppliers due to the logistical challenges of distributing the products to shops within their shelf-life.She commented: “British Bakeries, our main bread supplier, has been very supportive of the idea. It was the only way we could bring La Fornaia’s premium products into stores nationwide, without losing a day by first bringing them into our own distribution centre.”The Co-op agreed a price that British Bakeries could charge La Fornaia, which cannot be changed.
Ingredient suppliers and millers have had a most appalling time in the past 18 months. We have seen the relative demise of several of their big customers such as Harvestime, Oakdale, and now Inter Link to name just three. Scattered in their wake have been the suppliers, who have continued to support such companies as they entered troubled trading, often to get kicked in the teeth – not to mention the pocket – when that company went into administration or liquidation.If a company in administration re-surfaces with a new name and new owners, it suits the banks fine; they usually get all the monies owed to them as secured creditors, as does the VAT man. Remaining creditors, the baking industry’s key suppliers, often go to the dogs! That is the prevalent attitude and legislation. And all this is taking place against a background of costs shooting through the roof – from milk powder to butter, energy to flour prices – which affects suppliers as well as end users.Irish bakery group McCambridge, which has bought Inter Link’s 11 bakery companies, is in the process of contacting creditors. We hope it will do its best by them and wish McCambridge all the best for the future success of the new enlarged company and its employees (pg 4).But if I were an ingredient supplier now, I would be seriously asking myself the question: ’Do I want to continue to supply own-label manufacturers any more, or back the brands? Which offers more reliability?’Some multiples have been squeezing margins for own-label far too tight too often. The result is self-evident. The message to manufacturers must also be ’get your market position right’. No-one says it is easy, but it is certainly vital.More optimistically, Greggs MD Sir Michael Darrington has steered Greggs out of the doldrums in a short space of time (pg 4). And even the weather seems to be cheering up. The support given by bakers to fellow bakers during the floods has been typical of this industry (pg 8). The camaraderie is something to be proud of.Also this week, we venture a little further afield to Italy to hear about the pride taken in one particular craft bakery (pg 16). It’s a charming tale.
Hobbs House Bakery launched a range of its artisan breads in Harrods this week, marking its first supply deal with the retailer.The range includes its top-selling Sherston loaf, an Organic Shepherds Loaf, Fig and Walnut bread, and a selection of sourdough loaves, which are displayed on a dedicated table in the world-famous retailer’s Food Hall.Trevor Herbert, managing director, told British Baker that the Cotswolds bakery was “immensely pleased” to have its bread available in the capital city. He said there may be opportunities to supply other products to Harrods in the future, but that its wholesale focus is currently on bread.“That Harrods has given us this opportunity is very satisfying and validates our decision to stay true to the traditional production methods that we continue to use at Hobbs House bakery,” said Herbert. “This is good news for the industry, for us and for the many employees that we have.”He explained that Harrods had contacted the bakery as it was refreshing its artisan bread offering, and was aware of the bakery due to Tom and Henry Herbert’s Channel 4 programme The Fabulous Baker Brothers.Herbert added: “We currently have eight apprentices in various positions within the company, this we believe is all part of enabling the baking industry to survive in the future.”
If you’re into fresh, eclectic music, with a tasty spoonful of psychedelic West African influence, the new Barika album When the Time Comes will instantly make you turn your head and drop what you’re doing. Barika is a funky 6-piece group, led by Craig Myers on the ancient African instrument the N’Goni, also a long-time member and percussionist in Mike Gordon’s band, and founding member of the multi-dimensional ensemble Rubblebucket. Leaving his hometown of Burlington, Vermont in the mid-2000’s and traveling through different parts of Africa learning and observing various communities and styles of drumming has led Craig to new heights and boundaries with the work he has accomplished with Barika. When the Time Comes is a rare album; it allows the human mind to take a step back from the trials and tribulations in our daily lives, and provides a space to dig deep culturally and musically through the creativity that Craig Myers and the rest of Barika have created.Every track on the album besides “Dreams” is written by Myers and co-produced by Myers and Caleb Bronz, impressively displaying the heart and soul that was poured into the conceptualizing of this album, and bringing it to life. Opening song, “When the Time Comes,” starts off with some groovy string-work on the N’Goni, and as the beat builds, a powerful horn section enters, demonstrating exactly why Craig Myers has coined Barika’s sound as “funky, dubbed out, psychedelic West African flavored music.” The beautiful combination, of the N’Goni, horns, drums, and percussion, comes to a brief halt mid-way through the song, with faint, dubbed out tribal lyrics, and then smoothly flows back into the heavy-hitting groove that gets the album rolling.When the Time Comes sets itself on a unique path from Barika’s previous music, featuring several guest artists and vocalists such as Kat Wright, Stephanie Lynn Heaghney, Daby Toure, Mathew O’Brian, and Craig Mitchell. Track “Find My Way” featuring guest Craig Mitchell, starts off with a political tone, quickly encompassing the vision of every nation coming together as one, and eliminating division and social injustice that exists in our world today. As some would call aspects of the music political commentary, it more importantly provides a portal to connect with others through music on a universal level.Barika has big plans for the upcoming year, both live and in the practice room, kicking it off with the highly anticipated album release party of When the Time Comes. The famous Burlington, VT venue Nectar’s is the perfect place to release this masterpiece on February 17th, and kick Barika’s year off in style with a hometown-throw down. If you are able to make it out to Nectar’s the third Friday of February, you are indefinitely in for an eye-opening and pleasurable evening!You can pre-order your copy of the album here, and find out more about the band on their official website. Barika’s full tour schedule can be seen below.Upcoming Shows2/17, Album Release Party “When the Time Comes” w/ The Fritz @ Nectar’s, Burlington, Vermont3/9, Nublu, NYC [presented by People Time]3/10, Funk ‘n Waffles Downtown, Syracuse, New York *3/31, Positive Pie, Montpelier, Vermont4/22, Rockwood Music Hall / NYC4/28, Portland House of Music and Events, Portland, Maine **4/29, Nectar’s, Burlington, Vermont *** w/ Joe Driscoll** w/ Richard James and The Name Changers[Cover photo via Brian Jenkins]
Today, in the wake of their final shows of 2018, Joe Russo’s Almost Dead has announced 25 new tour dates for the coming year.Following their previously announced (and already-sold-out) three-night run at The Capitol Theatre in January, JRAD will return to the road for four shows in February including a stop at Atlanta, GA’s The Tabernacle (2/14); a two-night run at The Pageant in St. Louis, MO (2/15, 2/16); and a performance at Madison, WI’s The Sylvee (2/17).In March, Joe Russo’s Almost Dead will hit Albany, NY’s Palace Theatre (3/1); Portland, ME’s State Theatre (3/2, 3/3); Jim Thorpe, PA’s Penn’s Peak (3/13); New Haven, CT’s College Street Music Hall (3/14); Montclair, NJ’s The Wellmont Theater (3/15); and Cleveland, OH’s Masonic Auditorium (3/16).JRAD’s only shows during the month of April will be a pair of New Orleans late-nights at Mardi Gras World during the first weekend of New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival (4/26, 4/27). After taking most of May off, Joe Russo’s Almost Dead will resume their 2019 touring schedule on the west coast with a performance at Eugene, OR’s Cuthbert Amphitheater on May 31st, followed by shows at Redmond, WA’s Marymoor Amphitheater (6/1) and Missoula, MT’s KettleHouse Amphitheater (6/2).JRAD tour will resume in July for a performance at Northerly Island in Chicago, IL on July 11th. In August, the band will play a pair of revered venues, with shows at Los Angeles, CA’s Greek Theatre (8/16) and Morrison, CO’s Red Rocks (8/29). Finally, the band will round out their 2019 schedule with a relatively busy September that will see them perform at Dallas, TX’s House of Blues Dallas (9/12); Houston, TX’s House of Blues Houston (9/13); Austin, TX’s ACL Live at the Moody Theater (9/14); Philadelphia, PA’s newly reopened The Met Philly (9/26, 9/27); and Washington, D.C.’s The Anthem (9/28).The 2019 tour announcement notes that the band’s September 28th performance in Washington, D.C. will be their final show of 2019. A band Facebook Pre-Sale will start tomorrow, Wednesday, November 14th in three groups beginning at 12:00 p.m. ET, 1:00 p.m. ET, and 2:00 p.m. ET, respectively. Check the Joe Russo’s Almost Dead Facebook page at the times noted above to get the pre-sale passwords for the various pre-sale groups. A general public on-sale will similarly begin this Friday, November 16th in three groups at noon ET, 1:00 p.m. ET, and 2:00 p.m. ET, respectively. UPDATE [Thursday, 11/15/18]: Joe Russo’s Almost Dead announced today that Dead & Company’s Oteil Burbridge will fill in on bass for their four-night run in February (2/14 in Atlanta, 2/15 and 2/16 in St. Louis, and 2/17 in Madison).Burbridge has long been the band’s go-to sub at bass when Dave Dreiwitz is otherwise disposed with Ween. As of now, no 2019 Ween shows have been officially announced. For more information about Joe Russo’s Almost Dead’s 2019 tour, head to the band’s website.Joe Russo’s Almost Dead 2019 Tour DatesFriday, January 18, 2019: The Capitol Theatre ~ Port Chester, NY (Previously announced, SOLD OUT)Saturday, January 19, 2019: The Capitol Theatre ~ Port Chester, NY (Previously announced, SOLD OUT)Sunday, January 20, 2019: The Capitol Theatre ~ Port Chester, NY (Previously announced, SOLD OUT)Thursday, February 14, 2019: The Tabernacle ~ Atlanta, GAFriday, February 15, 2019: The Pageant ~ St. Louis, MOSaturday, February 16, 2019: The Pageant ~ St. Louis, MOSunday, February 17, 2019: The Sylvee ~ Madison, WIFriday, March 1, 2019: Palace Theatre ~ Albany, NYSaturday, March 2, 2019: State Theatre ~ Portland, MESunday, March 3, 2019: State Theatre ~ Portland, MEWednesday, March 13, 2019: Penn’s Peak ~ Jim Thorpe, PAThursday, March 14, 2019: College Street Music Hall ~ New Haven, CTFriday, March 15, 2019: The Wellmont Theater ~ Montclair, NJSaturday, March 16, 2019: Masonic Auditorium ~ Cleveland, OHFriday, April 26, 2019: Mardi Gras World Ballroom ~ New Orleans, LASaturday, April 27, 2019: Mardi Gras World Ballroom ~ New Orleans, LAFriday, May 31, 2019: Cuthbert Amphitheater ~ Eugene, ORSaturday June 1, 2019: Marymoor Amphitheater ~ Redmond, WASunday, June 2, 2019: KettleHouse Amphitheater ~ Missoula, MTThursday, July 11, 2019: Huntington Bank Pavilion at Northerly Island ~ Chicago, ILFriday, August 16, 2019: Greek Theatre ~ Los Angeles, CAThursday, August 29, 2019: Red Rocks Amphitheatre ~ Morrison, COThursday, September 12, 2019: House of Blues Dallas ~ Dallas, TXFriday, September 13, 2019: House of Blues Houston ~ Houston, TXSaturday, September 14, 2019: ACL Live at the Moody Theater ~ Austin, TXThursday, September 26, 2019: Metropolitan Opera House ~ Philadelphia, PAFriday, September 27, 2019: Metropolitan Opera House ~ Philadelphia, PASaturday, September 28, 2019: The Anthem ~ Washington, DCView 2019 Tour Dates
When it comes to recycling, most people know the basics – sort out the plastic, paper and glass. This conventional method of recycling is used by most homeowners and is usually available through curbside programs across Georgia. Why not take recycling one step further by sorting out organic matter? Removing things like apple skins and used coffee grounds from household trash can reduce the amount of refuse headed to landfills and create food for plants. Organic waste like raw vegetables scraps and grass trimmings can be recycled through composting. Composting is the process in which plant materials decompose into an earthy, dark, crumbly substance that is an excellent soil amendment. Composting may sound intimidating, but University of Georgia experts say it’s as easy as separating your standard recyclable items. You will have to select a site for your compost bin and built a bin. Your compost bin site should be in an out-of-the-way place, in full sun and on a well-drained site. A minimum size would be 3 feet x 3 feet x 3 feet. Large piles break down faster than smaller piles, but they are also more difficult to manage. A compost bin can be built from a variety of materials including welded wire, fencing, pallets or blocks. Leave the bottom open to the ground and open spaces in the sides to allow air to circulate through the pile. The key to a successful compost bin is adding the right combination of brown and green items. The microorganisms that do the composting work need an even mixture to survive. Here are some tips from UGA Cooperative Extension specialists to help you start the process. Brown compost materials include dry and dead plant materials, autumn leaves, grass clippings, shredded paper and wood chips. These items provide carbon. Green compost materials include fresh plant products, like kitchen fruit and vegetable waste, coffee grounds and tea bags. They provide nitrogen. UGA Extension specialists say the key is to have more brown items than green. The ratio should be 3:1. Almost any organic plant material can be used for composting, including grass clippings, leaves, flowers, twigs, chopped brush, old vegetable plants and straw. Knowing what not to put in your compost bin is important, too. Avoid diseased plants, weeds and seeds, or invasive weeds like morning glory and nut sedge. And don’t add meats, bones, grease or other animal-based food waste. They can smell bad and attract wild animals. Don’t add cat or dog manure, either. It can smell bad and may introduce diseases (manures from horses, cows and chickens are OK, but don’t use too much). Keep the pile moist but not too wet. To further speed up the decomposition process and prevent odors, mix the pile once a month using a shovel or spading fork. The compost pile is a microbial farm, teeming with bacteria, fungi, insects and worms. These compost critters feed on the organic matter, breaking it down into fine-textured humus. UGA horticulturists say although compost slowly releases a small amount of plant nutrients, it won’t replace fertilizer. Compost is ready when it looks like rich, crumbly earth and you can no longer recognize the original plant material. Each time you mix the pile, some ready-to-use compost should be available. Use your compost by adding it to the soil before you plant vegetables, trees, shrubs or flowers. This will help the soil hold nutrients and water. Compost can also be used as mulch on the soil surface, or as a potting soil for container plants. (Geoffrey Brown is a student writer with the University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences.) By Geoffrey BrownUniversity of Georgia
MONTPELIER, Vt. The numbers are in, and the state’s new job creation incentive program had a strong rookie season, creating 265 new jobs and generating nearly $600,000 in new tax revenues for Vermont in 2007.A final report released by the Vermont Economic Progress Council and the Vermont Department of Taxes, which jointly administer the Vermont Employment Growth Incentive program, shows that the seven companies approved for activity during its first year created $10 million in new payroll.They also made $23 million in capital investments, and the new jobs and economic activity generated an estimated $583,000 in net new tax revenues to the state, almost twice what was initially estimated.We are extremely pleased with the performance reports from companies participating in the Vermont Employment Growth Incentive program, said Karen L. Marshall, Chair of the Vermont Economic Progress Council. The authorized incentives leverage important economic drivers: New, well-paying jobs for Vermonters, new payroll, and capital investments in our communities.According to the data, the five companies that met their December 2007, first-year targets projected they would create 247 new jobs and $8.6 million in new payroll in 2007, but actual job creation by these companies was 259 new jobs and $9.5 million in new payroll. The average wage of the jobs is $42,282 and the companies all offer full benefits packages, including health care coverage. The average total compensation of the jobs is $51,073, and the authorized companies also exceeded their capital investment targets.This new economic activity generates additional tax revenues to help pay for other programs, Marshall said. For 2007 alone, the state invested about $845 per job and reaped a positive return on investment with new jobs and payroll, capital investment, and a net tax revenue return of $2,158 per job. This is truly a good investment for Vermont, she said. These are jobs and tax revenues that the state would not have realized unless the incentives were authorized. Two other companies authorized to receive incentives created a total of 6 jobs but did not meet their first-year targets for job creation and investment.Under reforms proposed by Governor Jim Douglas and passed by the Legislature in 2006, the VEGI economic incentives are authorized based on job and payroll creation and capital investments that must occur before the company receives incentive payments over a period of years. During consideration of the incentive authorizations, the Council determined that these projects would not occur or would occur in a significantly different and less desirable manner if not for the incentives being authorized. So if targets are met, the state is using a small portion of all the new revenues generated by the new activity of these companies-revenue that would not have otherwise been generated-to pay the incentive over a period of several years. The previous program had companies earning tax credits that were applied against future tax liability. The new program allows start up companies, which may not have tax liability, to take advantage of the incentives as well as providing greater program accountability.During the first year of VEGI, the Council considered 17 applications, of which two were denied, 6 rescinded for various reasons, and 2 were approved in 2007 but did not commence until 2008.The remaining 7 projects were authorized for incentives totaling $5.8 million to be earned, if targets are met, between 2007 and 2011 and paid out between 2008 and 2016.These projects projected the creation of 1,000 jobs between 2007 and 2011, with $37.1 million in new payroll and an average compensation of $48,432, and the investment of over $45.7 million in new facilities and machinery and equipment in Vermont. Over the five years, this activity will generate over $5.8 million in net new revenues for Vermont.Final reviews by the Vermont Department of Taxes of the 2007 claims filed by the companies indicate that five of the seven companies with activity in 2007 met or exceeded their Year 1 (December 31, 2007) targets. Two of the companies did not reach their 2007 targets by December 31, 2007. This does not mean that the companies did not do any of the activity they projected. They added new jobs and payroll and made substantial investments. But they did not meet the strict targets required to earn the incentive as of December 31, 2007. Under new legislation, these companies have 24 months to meet their 2007 targets. No incentive will be paid to these two companies until the targets are met and no incentive will ever be paid if the targets are not met. In addition, if any of the companies that did meet their targets do not maintain the jobs and payroll, future installments of the incentive they earned in 2007 will not be paid. Incentive payments for the 2007 activity to the five companies that met their 2007 targets totaled $208,653. Even accounting for the cost of the incentive payment and other costs to the state, the net tax revenue gain for 2007 alone was an estimated $582,792. The companies authorized to earn VEGI incentives for activity in 2007 were:” Monahan SFI: The incentives allowed family-owned brush manufacturer Thomas Monahan to purchase and reopen the Specialty Filaments plant in Middlebury, putting over 100 laid off Vermonters back to work. ” Vermont Timber Frames: After moving to New York several years ago, the incentives convinced this building component manufacturer to locate an expansion project in Vermont, reutilizing an empty industrial site in Bennington.” Omni Measurement, Inc.: This small R&D company was preparing to take its product from the drawing board to assembly line and could have outsourced production, but the incentives instead mean Vermont shares in the company’s success supplying our Air Force personnel with necessary equipment and reaps the new jobs, capital investment and the reutilization of an industrial building in Milton.” NEHP: The incentives helped this Williston manufacturer of process piping modules for the Semiconductor, Solar & Life Science industries jumpstart its R&D efforts to take advantage of new market potential.” Green Mountain Coffee Roasters: Because of the incentives offered the company established its second Vermont facility in Essex Junction instead of outside the state, bringing more than 100 jobs there. In addition, jobs were added at the Waterbury headquarters and hiring continues at both sites.” Burton: The incentives helped ensure that this Vermont company did not follow in the steps of others in the winter sports equipment sector by moving their headquarters out west. Instead, a major expansion will be located in Vermont.” Energizer: A new battery line that could have been installed in any of the company’s many offshore facilities will be in Vermont because of the incentives, along with many new jobs and capital investment that helps ensure the future of Energizer in St Albans.The Council authorized the companies to earn incentives after assuring compliance with nine program guidelines and applying a rigorous cost-benefit analysis that ensures an increase in state tax revenues even after payment of the incentives. The Council also determined that these projects would not occur or would occur in a significantly different and less desirable manner if not for the incentives being authorized. The Vermont Economic Progress Council is an independent board consisting of nine Vermont citizens appointed by the governor that considers applications to the state’s economic incentive programs.The Council is attached to the Vermont Agency of Commerce and Community Development, whose mission is to help Vermonters improve their quality of life and build strong communities.To view the full 2007 VEGI Annual report, visit:http://economicdevelopment.vermont.gov/Portals/0/VEGI_2008_%20Annual%20R(link is external)…For more information on VEPC and VEGI, visit:http://www.thinkvermont.com/vepc(link is external)