(PhysOrg.com) — The SuperB factory, a particle-accelerator to be built in Rome and approved last May by the Italian government was officially launched this past Friday with construction set to begin sometime in the near future. The accelerator, which is expected to take six years to build, will be constructed on the University of Rome Tor Vergata campus and will be named for the late Nicola Cabibbo, the Italian physicist best known for his work with weak force interactions. Citation: New SuperB factory particle-accelerator project launched in Italy (2011, October 12) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-10-superb-factory-particle-accelerator-italy.html SuperB scientists test new ideas at Diamond More information: web.infn.it/superb/ The particle-accelerator, known as a B type factory because it will send electrons and positrons (antiparticles) around a track, will be 1.3 kilometers long. The two particles will be made to collide producing what is known as heavy B mesons. Physicists studying them and how they decay hope to find answers to questions such as to why there appears to be less antimatter than matter in the known universe.The project is one of 14 the Italian government has approved as part of its CIPE Economic Planning Document. Championed by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), the accelerator will span 30 hectares on the university campus and will be within shouting distance of INFN Frascati National Laboratories.The new accelerator will be capable of producing as much as 100 times the number of collisions each year as its predecessors, which physicists label as an increase in luminosity. Also, the facility will be run by the INFN who plan to work with university officials to put together a team of international experts to oversee construction and eventually operation of the new facility. Its initial director will be current president of the INFN, Roberto Petronzio.All involved in the project are quick to point out that the new facility is not meant to compete with the European collaborative project, the Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland, but to complement it. The hope is that discoveries made at CERN can be modeled at SuperB to help in better understanding them. Also, its proponents say that by increasing the rate of collisions that can be observed at the facility, researchers hope to shed new light on subjects such as why antimatter apparently disappeared shortly after the big bang, or what’s behind the forces that hold matter together.Unfortunately, despite the rosy outlook described by the Italian government, the project is still not fully funded. The government has only pledged a fraction of what will be needed and to move forward, other partners will have to pledge funds, likely European or Asian, as the United States has pledged most of its resources to the Japanese Bell II project, an upgrade to another particle-accelerator project. © 2011 PhysOrg.com Overlay of the accelerator project on top of the Frascati site Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
More information: Report: cdn.ly.tl/publications/text-ba … s-and-weaknesses.pdf Explore further (PhysOrg.com) — Stanford researchers say that captcha security codes, asking Internet sign-up users to repeat a string of letters to prove the users are human, can be thwarted, and they have successfully defeated captcha at big name sites such as Visa, CNN, and eBay as proof. In fact, they found that thirteen out of 15 high-profile sites were vulnerable to automated attacks. Citation: Stanford researchers outsmart captcha codes (2011, November 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-11-stanford-outsmart-captcha-codes.html Captcha stands for Completely Automated Public Turing Test to tell Computers and Humans Apart. This is a test that a Carnegie Mellon University computer science graduate student and his advisor created in 2000 as a security tool to safeguard web sites from automated bot attacks and spammers. Simply put, the test was supposed to be passable by humans, not machines. The Stanford team, however, found that its own anti-spam tool-breaker was able to kill off captcha’s protective cover.The researchers Elie Bursztein, a postdoctoral researcher at the Stanford Security Laboratory, Matthieu Martin, and John C. Mitchell were able to crack the codes. In their study, they note that site owners should be taking a closer look at their captchas: “As we substantiate by thorough study, many popular websites still rely on schemes that are vulnerable to automated attacks. For example, our automated Decaptcha tool breaks the Wikipedia scheme… approximately 25% of the time. 13 out of 15 of the most widely used current schemes are similarly vulnerable to automated attack by our tool. Therefore, there is a clear need for a comprehensive set of design and testing principles that will lead to more robust captchas.”The Stanford automated tool, Decaptcha, involved removal of image background noise and breaking text strings into single characters for easier recognition. This tool was run in selected websites. Visa’s Authorize.net payment gateway was defeated 66 per cent of the time. eBay’s captcha was sidestepped 43 per cent of the time. Lower thwart rates were recorded at Wikipedia, Digg and CNN.Google and reCAPTCHA were the only two that beat out the Stanford team’s automated tool–no gotchas for either one. Interestingly, reCAPTCHA also has its roots at Carnegie Mellon, and it was developed as a step up from captcha. The reCAPTCHA project sought further protective distortions with random warping and lines for something that would be readable by humans but more complex.In 2009, Google acquired reCAPTCHA.As for other sites using captcha, the three researchers in their paper suggest various ways that captcha can be harder to outsmart.The Stanford team presented results of their research last month at the CCS 2011 (the ACM Conference on Computer and Communication Security) in Chicago. What’s more, Visa’s Authorize.net and Digg have switched to reCAPTCHA since these tests were performed. © 2011 PhysOrg.com Stanford computer scientists find Internet security flaw This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Real schemes learnability: Accuracy of Decaptcha using KNN vs the size of the training set. Logarithmic scale. Image: Elie Bursztein, Stanford University
Citation: Researchers produce the first experimental pulse-generation of a single electron—a leviton (2013, October 24) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-10-experimental-pulse-generation-electrona-leviton.html More information: Minimal-excitation states for electron quantum optics using levitons, Nature (2013) DOI: 10.1038/nature12713AbstractThe on-demand generation of pure quantum excitations is important for the operation of quantum systems, but it is particularly difficult for a system of fermions. This is because any perturbation affects all states below the Fermi energy, resulting in a complex superposition of particle and hole excitations. However, it was predicted nearly 20 years ago that a Lorentzian time-dependent potential with quantized flux generates a minimal excitation with only one particle and no hole. Here we report that such quasiparticles (hereafter termed levitons) can be generated on demand in a conductor by applying voltage pulses to a contact. Partitioning the excitations with an electronic beam splitter generates a current noise that we use to measure their number. Minimal-excitation states are observed for Lorentzian pulses, whereas for other pulse shapes there are significant contributions from holes. Further identification of levitons is provided in the energy domain with shot-noise spectroscopy, and in the time domain with electronic Hong–Ou–Mandel noise correlations. The latter, obtained by colliding synchronized levitons on a beam splitter, exemplifies the potential use of levitons for quantum information: using linear electron quantum optics in ballistic conductors, it is possible to imagine flying-qubit operation in which the Fermi statistics are exploited to entangle synchronized electrons emitted by distinct sources. Compared with electron sources based on quantum dots, the generation of levitons does not require delicate nanolithography, considerably simplifying the circuitry for scalability. Levitons are not limited to carrying a single charge, and so in a broader context n-particle levitons could find application in the study of full electron counting statistics. But they can also carry a fraction of charge if they are implemented in Luttinger liquids3 or in fractional quantum Hall edge channels; this allows the study of Abelian and non-Abelian quasiparticles in the time domain. Finally, the generation technique could be applied to cold atomic gases, leading to the possibility of atomic levitons. How the alphabet of data processing is growing: Research team generates flying ‘qubits’ (Phys.org) —A team of researchers in France has produced the first experimental pulse-generation of a single electron—they’ve named it a leviton, in honor of physicist Leonid Levitov and its resemblance to a soliton. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they caused the leviton to come about and how it might be used in future applications. © 2013 Phys.org Single-particle leviton: schematic picture of the wavefunction in the time and energy domains. Credit: Nature (2013) doi:10.1038/nature12713 Seventeen years ago, Levitov and colleagues suggested that if a voltage was applied to a nanocircuit and varied over time according to the mathematical expression of a Lorentzian distribution, it should be possible to excite a single electron peak in a sea of electrons. In this new effort, the researchers in France have proved the theory to be true and in the process have opened the door to a whole new subfield of physics involving the use of quantum excitations.The researchers achieved their goal by building a nanocircuit, which was essentially a nanoscale electrode, to create what is known as a Fermi sea—where electrons are held in a tiny device. They then cooled the circuit to near absolute zero and then applied voltage that varied in time to stir up the electrons—creating chaotic peaks and valleys. Adjusting the time variations to fit the Lorentzian distribution allowed for creating just one single peak—the long sought after leviton. The researchers compare their experiment to a tub of water, stirring causes chaotic waves to form, adding more water (electrons) causes the water level to rise, while letting some out similarly causes the level to fall. But, if the water is stirred in just the right way, as Scottish engineer John Scot Russell observed back in the late 1800’s, a soliton can form—a tsunami type wave where the energy in it is not dispersed as it moves across the surface.This is not the first time single-electron excitations have been caused to come about, but it is the first time it’s been done without having to resort to building a special nanostructure. Because of that, the researchers say, it now appears possible to scale up such a circuit to allow for building larger systems that could conceivable carry quantum information. Explore further Journal information: Nature This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Citation: Best of Last Week – Superabsorption theoretically demonstrated, sailing stones mystery solved and origin of anger face (2014, September 1) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-09-week-superabsorption-theoretically-stones-mystery.html Explore further (Phys.org) —It’s been a strong week for physics. One team showed that theoretically, superabsorption could be demonstrated using quantum engineering techniques—real world materials that take advantage of it could include quantum camera pixels, the transmission of power via light, and solar cell technology. Also, researchers working at Fermilab announced that they are set to test the very nature of the universe—they want to know if we actually exist in a 2D hologram. Another team working in Vienna has developed a revolutionary new imaging method—they’ve created an image of a cat without bouncing light off of it using entangled photons. Meanwhile, another team working at the University of Wisconsin has fabricated a qubit with an integrated micromagnet that increases the speed of quantum manipulation in silicon—another step in the march towards creating a true quantum computer. In one potential method to realize superabsorption, a superabsorbing ring absorbs incident photons, giving rise to excitons. Credit: Higgins, et al. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2014 Phys.org Picturing Schrodinger’s cat: Quantum physics enables revolutionary imaging method Less complex but still interesting are the results of experiments carried out that solved the mystery of the sailing stones of Death Valley, California—the odd trails they leave behind have puzzled those who have seen them for hundreds of years. Also of interest, a combined team of researchers from several universities has begun work on what they’re calling Robo Brain—a computer network that scours the Internet for informational content and then makes it available via a robot interface—leading, perhaps, to robots in the home or at work that can provide on-the-spot information about whatever needs attending to—how to fix your clothes dryer, for example, or when is the best time to fertilize your lawn. In completely unrelated news from Canada, a team of researchers has confirmed that “invadopodia” plays a role in the spread of cancer—they found cancer cells have tentacle-like structures that allow them to latch onto other organs, leading to the growth of tumors in the new location. This is good news because if a drug can be found to stop the latching, it would mean an end to the spread of cancer. Also, in perhaps worrisome news, a team exploring the ocean depths has found over 500 gas plumes bubbling off the east coast of the U.S.And finally, if you’ve been wondering why your mug morphs into a hideous amalgam of stretched and folded flesh when your temper flares, you might be happy to know that a team of researchers has identified the origin and purpose of the anger face—and it’s quite menacing.
In the never-ending quest to create robots that are ever more capable, roboticists have often been inspired by creatures that nature has designed. Attempting to mimic humans is a popular research area, as is copying four-legged creatures. Efrati notes that most such animals have one thing in common—stiff parts of their anatomy working against other stiff parts produce motion—bones in joints, for example. But as Efrati also notes, there is another area of research focused on the development of softer components that are manipulated without stiffer components—like jellyfish, for example, or flowers. Unfortunately, progress in this area has been rather slow—soft machines tend to respond slowly due to actuation issues. And they also tend to have limited degrees of motion and wear out quickly. In this new effort, the researchers have come up with a novel approach to creating soft machines—combining the bendability of hydrogels with the power of air pressure. They call their creations baromorphs, and they have demonstrated that they can be used to create soft-machines in wide variety of shapes.Each baromorph is essentially a sheet of hydrogel with channels inside of it. In its initial relaxed state, it is typically flat. When air is pumped in, it is routed through the channels in such a way as to inflate the baromoph into a desired shape. The channels are designed using a computer program, which also handles the formation of the resultant product. To prove the viability of their method, the researchers created baromorphs that were shaped like bowls, a saddle and even a human face. A small team of researchers at ESPCI Paris has come up with a way to combine pneumatics with a hydrogel to create a baromorph for soft robotics applications—a baromorph is a soft material that self-configures when inflated. In their paper published in the journal Nature Materials, the group describes their research and their geometric creations. Efi Efrati with the Weizmann Institute of Science has written a News and Views piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue. Researcher creates hydrogels capable of complex movement Journal information: Nature Materials More information: Emmanuel Siéfert et al. Bio-inspired pneumatic shape-morphing elastomers, Nature Materials (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41563-018-0219-x a, Continuous family of equilibrium states obtained for a baromorph under different pressures. b, Corresponding network of channels embedded in the plate. Channels are more concentrated in the central region of the disk, which leads to a spiky structure once inflated. c, Dynamical response: actuation at approximately 3 Hz of the pneumatic system (Supplementary Video 6). Scale bars, 2 cm. Credit: Nature Materials (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41563-018-0219-x Citation: Combining pneumatics with a hydrogel to create a baromorph—for soft robotics (2018, November 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-11-combining-pneumatics-hydrogel-baromorphfor-soft.html © 2018 Science X Network Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Ever had the sight of choking hills, or thought about the effect of urbanisation on the mountains? Fourteen artists reflect the same by there excellent brush strokes and enchanting colours, in a group show put up at NIV art gallery.‘We went on an camp to Barsu village in Uttrakhand before the calamity took place. Most of the paintings are on sight work created by us,’ said artist Anoop Kamath. His portraits are a striking combination of grey and red colour which portray the agony of suffering of children due to the calamity. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Another painting created by artist, Suparna Mondal in striking blue and red shades with fine brush strokes describes the adverse effects of urbanisation in the mountain areas. The fallen buildings in front, the mountain and Lord Shiva’s third eye in background of the painting, foretold the result of mistreating mother nature.Eyes of artist Josh PS saw the ancient Himalayas differently. He was among the victims of tragedy and returned back safe. Looking at the sediments of great mountain his thoughts tried to trace the history, ‘The sediments we find on the mountains are similar to one we find on the sea bed of Ganges, I realised the existence of Himalayas is older than the myths,’ and that’s what his painting exactly shows, Grand Himalayas standing tall in all its glory. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixSome other interesting art works were also on display by various artists. Abstract work by artist, Bose Krishnamachari is soothing with really eye catching colours, which leaves one with lively colourful thoughts. Figurative paintings by Karunakaran CN shows the relation between mother nature and humans. Art work of artist Binoy Verghese is created by various elements from his memory as a collage and is aptly titled Floating Memories. Painting by Priti Kahar, will leave one with excellent message of not being alone. In her painting there are chairs falling with only one highlighted as, everyone is falling but we can see only ourselves in that position. The organiser of the exhibition Swami Samidanand said, ‘This is an art initiative to provide shelter to a few people who lost their homes in the tragedy. All the funds collected will be utilised to help the victims.’
An exhibition here titled Resurgence: Revival of Indian Embroideries displays a variety of Indian embroideries enhanced with newly-developed techniques.The exhibit is the result of 20 years of effort by Asif Shaikh, an Ahmedabad-based expert in Indian textiles.‘I have sourced these pieces from different parts of India. I work closely with artisans and learn their techniques. Then, I improve on it to enhance the quality of embroidery. The idea is to promote Indian embroideries to the world,’ Shaikh said. ‘I have been working on it for over 20 years and the idea is to use these traditional textile techniques in a contemporary style,’ he added. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Culture Minister Chandresh Kumari Katoch inaugurated the exhibition Monday. She appreciated Shaikh’s efforts to curate the best of embroideries from most states, but felt he had completely neglected the Northeast region.‘It is a great effort, but he has not included Northeastern traditional embroideries. They have many interesting tribal things and clothes that are very fashionable. Perhaps he should now come up with a tribal exhibition to show what these states have to offer,’ she said.On display are intricate weaves of zardozi, Parsi style embroidery, danka embroidery with zardozi work, bead work, ajrak with embroidery, soof embroidery, rabari embroidery, gotta-patt Mughal designs and many more.WHERE: Indira Gandhi National Centre for the ArtsWHEN: On till 15 September
Four car-borne criminals, who had allegedly committed two robberies within few hours in west Delhi were unlucky the third time as they got arrested in their attempt to again loot a truck, police said on Friday.Akshay, Akash, Jaspreet and Satender were allegedly targeting truck drivers and cleaners on the deserted stretches in west Delhi. They used knives to threaten the victims into submission and physically assaulted one truck driver when he resisted their robbery bid.On the intervening night of Wednesday-Thursday, they went for a robbing spree in a red colour Chevrolet Beat car. They first targeted a truck driver Pritam and his helper. Driving towards Azadpur, the two had got off their truck to replace a punctured tyre at the Ring Road in Punjabi Bagh.In the meantime, Pritam informed the police and they were tracked on the Ring Road and later arrested.
Darjeeling: It was 1948 when first Land Rovers had rolled into the ‘Queen of Hills’. A strong bond ensued between the two. Many years later, the bond strengthened with Darjeeling’s Samantha Dong becoming the first lady instructor for Land Rovers certified by the company in India.It was in December 2017 when Samantha had taken part in the Teesta Rangeet Festival in Darjeeling.A Land Rover rally was part of the event where 42 fighting fit Series I and II Land Rovers were taking part. Samantha was driving her Series – IIA Air-portable Land Rover. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsAsish Gupta, the only Lead Instructor of the Land Rover company, who was also taking part in the rally was quick to spot Samantha. He offered her to come to Chandigarh and try for the Instructors certification.Samantha, a Masters Degree holder in Public Administration found herself in Chandigarh in April 2018 where she appeared for the online examinations. “I have a team of 21 instructors in India. Samantha becomes the first lady to clear her Level 1 in India,” stated Asish Gupta, the lead instructor, Land Rover, India while talking to Millennium Post. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedLand Rovers run in the blood of 29-year-old Samantha Dong. Her grandfather used to drive a Land Rover as a livelihood, making the arduous trip from Manyebhanjyang to Sandakphu (the highest point of West Bengal at an altitude of 1200 ft), ferrying both passengers and goods.”Inspired by my grandfather, I started learning to drive at the age of 7. However for the past 10 years, I have been driving the Series II Land Rover that belonged to my grandfather and our family owns,” stated Samantha. Samantha is the only lady driver who drives up to Sandakphu (around 60km) in her vintage Land Rover negotiating the steep terrain and the hairpin bends.”I am lucky that I got the opportunity to make a career out of my passion for driving. I want to clear all the levels and training with Land Rover and become a Lead Instructor,” stated Samantha.Recently the 70th anniversary was commemorated at Maneybhanjyang, a sleepy hamlet, 28 km away from Darjeeling. The hamlet still boasts of more than 40 fighting fit vintage Land Rovers ferrying passengers and essential commodities to Sandakphu, Phalut and neighbouring areas.There were two Land Rover teams, one from India and the other from Solihull near Birmingham, England. Samantha was a part of the celebrations and drove both her own Land Rover and the All New Discovery Land Rover.”The new land Rover is fully automated. The drive quality is much better. However, I love the charm of the vintage Land Rover. With everything manual, it is a tough challenge,” added Samantha.The English Land Rover team had shot three documentaries as a part of the celebrations including one featuring Samantha and her family. “My father had 9 grandsons and grand daughters. None of Samantha’s cousins drive the Land Rover. I taught her driving. She has excellent car control,” stated Kiran Dong, Samantha’s father.The Dong family has been very supportive. “Sometimes it’s very scary to see Samantha negotiate the hairpin bends. One miscalculation would mean death. However, I have never allowed my fear to interfere with her passion,” stated Manzil Shuprabha Dong, Samantha’s mother.Samantha wants to take part in driving expeditions including the Himalayan Dash and the Desert Dash. “I want to drive to Ladakh in my Land Rover,” added the dreamy eyes Samantha.From 1948 to 1954, the Government of India had imported around 2,000 Land Rovers to be used in various departments throughout the country.The Land Rovers soon became a status symbol for the people who took pride in their work.
kolkata: The IIT Kharagpur has secured the Chairman Award for Technical Innovation in India Innovation Challenge Design Contest (IICDC) 2017. The award was given on Battery Health Management System with Integrated Charger by Texas Instruments India (TI), a TI statement said here yesterday. The IIT KGP figured on top among the 10 winning teams of one of the country’s most popular design contests for engineering students. Sir M Visvesvaraya Institute of Technology of Bengaluru, won the first runners up for their innovation Underwater and Airborne Unmanned Autonomous Vehicle and Bhartiya Vidya Bhavan’s Sardar Patel Institute of Technology of Mumbai was adjudged the second runners up award on their innovation Health Set. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal life The announcement was made at the grand finale at IIM Bangalore on August 10 in the presence of Dr S D Shibulal, co-founder of Infosys, Dr Anita Gupta, Adviser and Associate Head, National Science & Technology Entrepreneurship Development Board (NSTEDB) and the Department of Science and Technology of the union government. The winners qualify for a Rs 3.5 crore start-up seed fund from the Department of Science and Technology (DST) and an opportunity to be incubated at ‘IIM Bangalores innovation and entrepreneurship hub N S Raghavan Centre for Entrepreneurial Learning (NSRCEL). Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killed The final 10 winners were chosen after several rounds of discussions and deliberations by a panel of judges. More than 15,380 students of 965 colleges took part with 30 teams having made it to the final after a rigorous selection process. Gunit Singh Chabbra of IIT Kharagpur said, “to be one of the top 10 winning teams is absolutely thrilling. IICDC is a once-in-a-lifetime experience and I would encourage students who love technology, have a great idea and want to be entrepreneurs, to definitely give it a shot.” This years edition has witnessed 34 patents filed by the participants across domains like agriculture, health, vehicle safety, IOT, automation, security and eco-friendly appliances, the statement said. In a year-long challenge, the participants were mentored by TI and IIMB. While TI provided technical resources and guidance throughout the contest – from free tools, technical guidance and mentoring, to helping student develop their prototypes – DST provided funding of Rs 3.5 crore to the student start-ups, which went towards the product development process and seed fund. The Texas Instruments is a global semi-conductor design and manufacturing company which develops analog ICs and embedded processors.